FAQ Problems


What is gastroparesis? Gastroparesis, also called delayed gastric emptying, is a disorder that slows or stops the movement of food from the stomach to the small intestine. Normally, the muscles of the stomach, which are controlled by the vagus nerve,... Read more

Liver Cancer

What is Liver Cancer? Liver Cancer is the growth and spread of unhealthy cells in the liver. What causes Liver Cancer? Cirrhosis Long term hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection Obesity Diabetes What are the symptoms of Liver Cancer? Signs... Read more

Biliary Cancer

What is Biliary Cancer? There are two primary types of Biliary (Hepatobiliary) Cancer Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cholangiocarcinoma What is Biliary Cancer: Hepatocellular Carcinoma? Cancer that develops in the liver. What is Biliary Cancer: Cholangiocarcinoma? Cancer that develops within the liver’s biliary... Read more

Pancreatic Diseases

What is Pancreatitis? Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas. What are the two types of Pancreatitis? Acute Chronic What is Acute Pancreatitis? Acute Pancreatitis is a sudden attack causing inflammation of the pancreas and is usually associated with severe... Read more

Ulcerative Colitis

What is Ulcerative colitis? Ulcerative colitis affects the colon and the rectum, causing inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the large intestine. What causes Ulcerative colitis? The exact cause is unknown.  Some think ulcerative colitis might be caused by... Read more

Rectal Bleeding

What is rectal bleeding? Rectal bleeding is blood from the rectum, which may appear on the stool, on the toilet paper or in the toilet bowl. Continuous passage of significantly greater amounts of blood from the rectum or stools that... Read more

Liver Disease

What are some of the symptoms of liver disease? Typical signs of livers disease are fatigue, excessive tiredness, jaundice, dark urine or light colored stools.  It is important to note that you can have liver disease with no visual symptoms. ... Read more

Lactose Intolerance

What is lactose intolerance? If you are lactose intolerant your body is unable to digest lactose, the sugar in dairy products. What causes lactose intolerance? Lactose intolerance is caused by either a deficiency of lactase in the body. Lactase is... Read more

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

What is irritable bowel syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder of the colon (large intestine) that causes abdominal pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhea.  No structural or biochemical cause can be found to explain the symptoms, therefore... Read more


What is hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Toxins, certain drugs, some diseases, heavy alcohol use and bacterial and viral infections can all cause hepatitis. The most common types are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. What is... Read more


What are hemorrhoids? Hemorrhoids are swollen and inflamed veins around the anus or in the lower rectum. External hemorrhoids are located under the skin around the anus. Internal hemorrhoids develop in the lower rectum and may protrude through the anus.... Read more

Helicobacter Pylori

What is Helicobacter pylori? Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are a type of bacteria that infects the inner lining of the stomach. The bacteria spread from eating contaminated water or food. Overcrowding can also help the spread of bacteria. It is... Read more


What is heartburn? Heartburn is an uncomfortable feeling of burning or warmth in the chest caused by too much stomach acid. What is stomach acid? The stomach produces stomach acid to help protect us against bacteria parasites.  It aids in... Read more


What is gastritis? Gastritis is an inflammation of the mucus membrane that lines the stomach caused by a bacterial infection of the stomach or damage from drugs or alcohol.  When the mucus layer becomes damaged the stomach wall or lining... Read more


What are gallstones? Gallstones typically form within the gallbladder though some stones can form within other areas of the biliary tract.  Gallstones are lumps of hardened, concentrated bile that contain cholesterol, bile pigments bile salts, calcium salts and/or excretory elements... Read more

Fecal Incontinence

What is fecal incontinence (FI)? Fecal incontinence is the inability to hold a bowel movement until reaching a bathroom or accidental leakage while passing gas. Although patients often understandably feel afraid or embarrassed to talk with their physicians about this... Read more

Fatty Liver Disease

What is fatty liver disease? Fatty liver disease (FLD) is a certain kind of fat, specifically triglyceride, accumulates in the liver cells through a process called steatosis. Steatosis is the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell.  There are two... Read more


What are diverticulosis and diverticulitis? Many people have small pouches in their colon that bulge outward through weak spots in the colon wall. Each pouch is called a diverticulum. Multiple pouches are called diverticula. Diverticulitis occurs when the pouches become... Read more


What is diarrhea? Diarrhea is loose, watery stools that pass three or more times a day. Acute diarrhea lasts 1 or 2 days and goes away on its own but diarrhea lasting more than 2 days may be a sign... Read more

Crohn’s Disease

What is Crohn’s disease? Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that usually affects the intestines, but may occur anywhere from the mouth to the anus. What causes Crohn’s disease? While the exact cause of Crohn’s disease is unknown, the... Read more


What is constipation? Constipation occurs when bowel movements become difficult or less frequent. The normal length of time between bowel movements varies for each person but going longer than three days without a bowel movement is too long. Signs of... Read more

Colorectal Cancer

What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a cancer which can develop anywhere in the large intestine with the majority of colorectal cancers beginning as polyps inside the colon or rectum. What causes colorectal cancer? The exact cause of most... Read more

Colon Polyps

What are colon polyps? A colon polyp is a growth on the inside surface of the colon (the large intestine).  Some colon polyps are benign (non-cancerous), and some types may already be potentially precancerous, precancerous or frankly cancerous. What are the risks... Read more


What is Colitis? Colitis is a non-specific term referring to inflammation of the lining of the large intestine (colon). The term was also previously used to mean irritable bowel syndrome. What causes Colitis? Acute and chronic infections including food poisoning... Read more


What is cirrhosis? Cirrhosis is irreversible deterioration of liver function. With an unhealthy liver, the normal cells are replaced by scar tissue which can block the flow of blood through the liver impairing the liver functions necessary for survival such... Read more

Celiac Disease

What is celiac disease? Celiac disease is an allergic reaction that damages the lining of the small intestine and prevents it from absorbing parts of food that are important for staying healthy. The damage is caused by a reaction to... Read more

Barrett’s Esophagus

What is Barrett’s esophagus? The esophagus is the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.  Barrett’s esophagus forms when the normal esophageal lining is replaced by intestinal tissue, a process called intestinal metaplasia.  This usually occurs as a consequence... Read more

Acid Reflux Disease

What is Acid Reflux Disease or Gastroesphageal Reflux Disease (GERD)? GERD is a condition in which the esophagus becomes irritated or inflamed by stomach contents like acid.  The acid backs up in the esophagus and causes reflux.  The reflux is the... Read more